After observing several discussions regarding “racial purity”, it makes me think that breeders are treating canine “breeds” as if they were part of a taxonomic organization of species (as if they were part of natural evolutionary relationships).
Nowadays to say that certain “Canine Breeds” are “Pure by Origin” is very difficult without bumping into basic genetic concepts. With regard to selection and understanding in general, racial purity of “origin” or “without mixing” are those that originated from segregated and isolated places for long periods of time, and which are hardly proven. Therefore, we cannot affirm that there is a “canine breed” in which there was no interracial crossing; what exists is a very improved “breed”, with a marked characteristic and very selected over the years.
The concept of breed is conditioned to the Official description of its Standard, which determines a set of similar characteristics transmitted by heredity. They are strains within the same species, with visible phenotypic resemblance and a propensity to a certain temperament, developed over the generations in which the specimens maintain the same characteristics.
I am impressed that nowadays, people consider a “attack on cynophilia” the mixture of breeds with the purpose of originating another. It is clear that we must express a certain concern about possible insertions, since all the crossing must be done with study, responsibility, and precautions must be taken in order not to introduce genetic problems in the new breed that is being formed. The breeder’s goal should always be to aim for genetic improvement, with the preservation of health and temperament.
What defines that a dog is “purebred” is its pedigree, issued by the genealogical registration service, which defined the Breed Standard to which it belongs, obeying criteria established by the regulations of the entity responsible for the control of the breed.
The IBC considers that the Exotic Bully “Pure by Breeding” (note that we do not mention that they are pure by “Origin”), is the F4 product (93.75%) starting from the combination of other pre-established breeds. Thus, RACIAL PURITY BY CROSSING will be achieved.
The following is a brief history of the formation of some breeds to illustrate a little more about this topic:
Let’s consider that a few centuries ago there were dogs “Terriers” and “Old English Bulldogs” (besides other canine types, but only these are of interest to us at the moment).
In order to participate in sports involving fights between dogs and other animals, breeders (breeders of the time) decided to cross Terrier-type dogs with Bulldogs, aiming at strong dogs like Bulls and agile like Terriers. Throughout history, the well-known American Pitbull Terrier emerges. Note that they are still terriers, with discreet Bulldog traits. The Selection was based on functionality, which performed the combat function better.
With the approval of laws that prohibited dog fights, the purpose of breeding declined and dog breeders decided to build a new breed, this time, no longer based on fighting performance, but on those with the best conformation for exposure and that best represented the “racial pattern”. The “American Staffordshire Terrier” appears, it is worth mentioning that the dogs still carry the name Terrier, therefore they remain Terriers, with traits Bulldogs.
With growing prejudice about Pitbull dogs, laws banning this breed have been put in place around the world. Some breeders then decided to further soften the dogs’ temperament, reportedly combining the “American Pitbull” and “American Staffordshire Terrier” breeds aiming at dogs with more squat features and mild temperaments (to the “surprise” of the “purists” who do not admit Pitbull’s Genealogical Records).
In addition to the declared breeds, we also had insertions of “undeclared” breeds that gave the dogs a more Bulldog aspect than the training dogs (in theory). Now dogs lose the name “Terrier” and Bulldog traits prevail. American Bully appears. It is important to remember that Terriers traits are still expected in this breed, for example: face with few wrinkles, movement lighter and more balanced than that of Bulldogs and as incredible as (not) it seems, the pattern still calls for scissor bite (except for the category Miniature that allows biting with slight prognathism).
For some years now a “new type” of American Bully has emerged, dogs with characteristics more “Bulldogs” than the original American Bullies, these great changes in the breed’s phenotype are due to constant insertions of other breeds of dogs of the type “Bull”, the insertions have been so constant in recent years, the dogs have become so far removed from the original standard proposed by the American Bully, that an inevitable conflict within that breed fell on the clubs, owners and breeders. The way out was to compose a new breed, with its own characteristics. Those then, affectionately dubbed “Exotics” by the breeders, can now go their own way. No more Terrier traits are expected in this breed, due to such prevalence / influence of Bulldogs. Dogs are exclusively for the company.